Building modelling repository for energy analysis

Master Thesis by James William O’Sullivan.

Start date: 23-01-2017           End date: 25-06-2017

Abstract – Developing a repository that collects descriptions, drawings, plans, BIM models, simulation models and such like for all typical Danish buildings. With this repository established, we are able to estimate the demand of districts, cities and do many others things.

BIM: The Importance of Communication

Master thesis by Maria Herroros, December 2016

Winner of Innovation Competition “Sprirekassen” by Bikubenfonden, Feb. 2017.


Building Information Modeling (BIM) methods started to be implemented in the Architectural Engineering Construction sector (AEC) in order to make the industry more efficient, innovative and with better quality on the project delivery, reducing costs.  BIM replaces the traditional way of communication, 2D drawings, by using 3D models, where all data is gather in one place and all parties of the project can access to it. However, the transition of work methodology is a slow implementation process due the use of new tools and the need of skilled people, while the industry is not completely prepared yet.  Communication, is essential when using BIM method to achieve good results, avoiding misunderstandings, hence, BIM is a collaborative sharing process.

During different stages of a building project, there are minimum requirements that must be accomplished in the deliveries. When talking about BIM, it is meant to the level of development (LOD) of building model elements and BIM model level. The LOD specifies how accurate the model element is, and what information should contain. This concept is still confusing for most of the departments, and needs a deeper comprehension in the beginning of every project, also when there is a collaboration with international colleagues, who use other country standards. These issues could be accomplished by using effective communication tools.

The objective of this thesis is to build a solution, which will improve BIM communication between project disciplines, helping to understand LOD´s among project stages and cross countries. The solution is built according to the company demands, Arup engineers, focusing on the Mechanical Electrical Plumbing (MEP) department that divided between Copenhagen and London office, and data exchange between them in a case study project.

The method is created through a development process, which is documented in this report. The process consists in a first evaluation of the company´s needs and improvements required in the MEP department. Based on findings, a tool is created to improve information exchange between engineers, speed up workflow and achieve requirements, requested to deliver in every project stage. The tool is called BIMapping.  BIMapping is created as a web-based page, hence, all information is digitized and gathered in one place.

BIMapping, is presented in the main page interface. This main page is a single entry to all knowledge included, and represents a mapping on the standardization levels. The main page is divided into three main sections, which guides the user through the whole project process and gives a deep information of LOD and BIM levels, required at every point of the project for building services.

The solution is reviewed and tested by BIM experts, who contribute with their feedbacks to the development of BIMapping and future studies.

The tool should not be seen as a final solution, but as a startup initiative which was welcomed and appreciated by BIM experts, as a good element to be implemented in BIM project process.


Develop of a proof of concept for the utilization of data for an optimal and controllable indoor environment at the DTU Library Living Lab

Master thesis by Jørgen Falch Waarsøe, December 2016

Abstract – The library at DTU has a vision of improving the indoor climate by making the library more intelligent and by turning the entire library into a living lab. Researchers and students should be able to use the living lab to conduct ex-periments that can lead to a improved indoor climate in the library. The first phase in turning the library into a living lab involves removing all the lamps and replacing them with LEDs. While replacing the lamps the library will also install sensors that can be used as a part of the living lab. The DTU library is now looking for ideas to how the new lighting system and sensors can be an integrated part of the living lab.

This thesis is about developing a software system, which can help the living lab improve to the indoor climate, by taking advantage of the new LED lamps in the library. The system developed consists of an automation system and a smartphone app. The automation system can be configured by users of the living lab users to take input from sensors and adjust the lighting accordingly. The smartphone app is used by the library guests to adjust the lighting decided by the automation system.

The tests made showed that the software is working as intended and that it can be a useful tool for conducting experiments. However the initial tests show that an automated lighting system can be very distracting. Therefore it is important that users can override the automation system.

Supervisor: (Al)Fred Heller, DTU Civil Engineering, Denmark.

The thesis download version: thesis_s103801


Tools for Agile Commissioning of HVAC Systems

By Kevin Tran

Development and testing of smart system for balancing of ventilation ductworks based on Wireless Sensing Technology

The purpose of the thesis was to make the initial steps for future work of possible improvement and automations of the HVAC balancing procedures. To enable easy and automatized re-commissioning of the ventilation system in terms of pressure balancing, this project focused on developing such a system. In addition a simulation model was created representing the experimental setup of which the system were tested.
The methods applied in this thesis were initially concluded a literature review, and afterwards it were expanded to include both hardware development and simulation using the tool Simulink.
A simple wireless balancing tool were developed and able to both measure and control a damper position according to a user defined set point. The system performance initially showed a promising settling time and a relatively stable system response. The simulation model provided conformity of the proposed system dynamics.
In conclusion, the initial steps of improvement and automations of the air distribution system balancing procedures were made. The balancing tool proved being able to balance a single branch according to a given set point, along with a simulation model extending the balancing of two dampers, and thereby making the more complex future work possible.

Supervisors where: Jakub Kolarik, DTU Byg.

You can find the thesis master-thesis-kevin-tran-s093385.

Proposal: Batchelor Level: The typical Danish 2010, 2015 and 2020 building

Every time a student or researcher, also companies, have to find the demand for a typical building, they struggle with finding a good example to base the dimensioning on. Old buildings behave very different  but the new buildings behave probably rather similar for the main building body and the main energy system, as for the user influenced parts of the energy system, the variation is rather large. We will focus on the first part.

The aim of this Diploma Thesis is to find the energy demand for typical Danish buildings of different types for the 2010, 2015 and 2020.

You will have to describe the buildings (generic to cover as many as possible buildings variation in a few types), in CAD and BIM.

You will build up an advanced model for each type and compute the time series in hourly, possible other time intervals.

You publish the whole to the Internet for students and researchers to use.

Additional ideas: We can use cluster analysis and similar on big data sets to support your modelling work.

If your are interested, contact (Al)Fred Heller.

Proposal: Knitting all together – BIM with GIS, Smart Cities (CIM), Big Data, Sensors (IoT) …

With step-up in the Building Smart, we could work on, how the many data from BIM can be put into relation to other data in GIS systems, City Information Systems (CIM), from Big Data pools and much more. This vision is defined at the Building Smart web site:

Take a look and work with us, evt. in the Vidensby project on Lyngby Smart Cities – data platform.

Please contact me.

Development of Aggregation Models for Building Energy Demands applied to Smart Cities

Master thesis by Panagiota Gianniou, August 2014

Abstract – The mitigation of climate change has been a priority to most countries’ agendas
nowadays. Energy and environmental policies have been introduced to facilitate the
achievement of national targets. At the same time, rapid urbanization has resulted in
converting cities into the main energy consumers and generators of GHG emissions.
Thus, they are an ideal platform where sustainable solutions can be applied which will
improve their durability and functionality. The concept of Smart Cities has the
potential to integrate sustainable technologies and innovative systems into urban
areas. At the same time, the building sector occupies a key place in the development
of Smart Cities. Energy demand of the building sector affects significantly national
energy balances. Furthermore, estimating energy demand of a cluster of buildings, a
district or city requires the aggregation of them. When handling aggregated energy
demand data, future energy predictions and the creation of what-if scenarios for
demand-side energy management are enabled. It also facilitates urban planning, as
well as the development of energy hubs into urban areas.
In the current Thesis, the theoretical background needed to study aggregation of
building energy demands is presented and analyzed. Two methods of aggregating
energy demands of buildings are identified and implemented on a real case-study,
being located in Sønderborg, Denmark. This consists of 16 single-family houses all
connected to the regional district heating system. These were modelled by Termite, a
newly-developed parametric tool, which uses Danish Be10 for energy simulating.
According to the first aggregation way, individual buildings’ energy simulations are
carried out. This method necessitates extensive data availability. Six different
information levels are investigated, concluding that apart from general data about
building’s functionality, floor area and age of construction, also information about the
most recent energy refurbishment state of the building is crucial for achieving high
accuracy in energy demand estimations. According to the second aggregation way,
building typologies are used, where five example buildings representing each type are
simulated. The results highlight that the specific example buildings represent quite
well the respective buildings, but present a deviation from the measured energy
demands. However, the annual aggregate heat demand of this method is found to be
very close to the measured one. Extensive discussion on the challenges and
uncertainties of the present city energy model is also presented.

MSc Thesis_Panagiota Gianniou_s121414.

Panagiote Gianniou is today a PhD at DTU Byg. You find her work at

Modellering af den termiske masse i bygninger med det formål at bestemme bygningers evne til at flytte energiforbruget i tiden

Bachelor thesis by Frederik Lynge Holvorsen, June 2015 (Danish)

(English: Modelling of thermal mass of buildings, aiming at flexibility, demand shifting of energy demand for heating and cooling.)

Introduktion (Danish): Den øgede anvendelse af vedvarende energi medfører store udfordringer med at holde
energisystemerne stabile. Da det før kun var forbrugssiden, der svingede, er det med vedvarende
energikilder, også produktionssiden der viser udsving. Dette kan medføre uhensigtsmæssige
ekstremsituationer, som kan være ”spidser” (peaks) eller ”huller”. Derfor
arbejdes der på teknologier, der er i stand til at flytte energiforbrug i tiden, for eksempel
ved at lagre energi. I bygninger er det oplagt at udnytte bygningens masse hertil. Der er
dog ret stor usikkerhed omkring den mængde energi, der kan lagres, når for eksempel
overskydende elektricitet fra vindmøller kun er til rådighed i korte perioder. Nærværende
projekt vil, gennem modellering undersøge, hvordan varmetransporten og varmelagring
foregår i typiske konstruktioner og materialer. Dermed er der mulighed for at estimere potentialet
for fleksibilitet som bygninger kan tilbyde det omgivende energisystem.

Produktionen af bæredygtig energi og energibehov er ikke nødvendigvis sammenfaldende
rent tidsmæssigt. Dette gør sig gældende med hensyn til udnyttelse af vindenergi, som bidrager
til en større og større del af Danmarks energiproduktion. Vindmøller kan f.eks. producerer
strøm om natten hvor behovet for energi i boliger og kontorer er lavt.
Det er derfor relevant at afdække mulighederne for at kunne lagre overskydende energi til
senere brug.

1.2 Formål
Formålet med dette bachelorprojekt er at undersøge bygningers evne til at flytte varmeforbruget
i tiden gennem termisk lagring i bygningsmassen. Denne undersøgelse sker ved
hjælp af matematisk modellering af den termiske masse.

1.3 Fremgangsmåde
Projektforløbet blev delt op i tre faser. I den første fase opstilles og analyseres de nødvendige
teorier, som danner grundlag for at undersøge muligheden for at forskyde energiforbruget
i bygninger.

Abstract (English):

Background: Huge challenges occur with an increasing use of sustainable energy. Some
of these challenges are associated with securing the stability of the energy systems and to
continuously meet consumer energy demand.

Objective: The objective of this project is to provide knowledge regarding the ability to
store thermal energy in buildings and increase the load shift potential, by implementing
mathematical models to support analytics and decision-making. This project will examine
how heat transfer and heat storage is done in typical structures and materials to help estimate
the potential for flexibility which buildings can offer the surrounding energy systems.

Method: This paper is based on a combination of a recognised theoretical foundation,
which forms the basis for exploring the possibility of shifting energy consumption in buildings.
The theory is used to prepare two models in Ida Ice and Comsol in order to verify the
accuracy of Ida Ice. The theoretical foundation and the setup of the models are revisited
and adjusted in an iterative process, in order to obtain the same performance in Ida Ice as
in Comsol and verify the use of Ida Ice.

A range of experiments have been designed in order to simulate different thermal situations
in order to demonstrate the flexibility potential of buildings.

Results: The verification of the building simulation program Ida Ice shows a discrepancy
when comparing to the theoretical foundation and formulas implemented in Comsol. It will
require further investigations to identify the underlying reason of these observations.

The results of the experiments show that it is possible to store energy in order to make use
of this at a later time. However this requires a longer preheating period and the time period
where the energy demand can be shifted is limited.

Bachelorprojekt, Frederik Halvorsen s123095 (final).

Evaluation of buildings’ flexibility potential with respect to their embedded thermal mass

Master Thesis by Emmanouil Katsigiannis, March 2015

Abstract – Towards the mitigation of climate chance and the reduction of green-house-gas emissions,
cities, nowadays, persistently tend to increase the power generated from renewable energy
resources. The penetration of renewables, however, implies several side-effects. Renewable
energy sources such as wind and solar energy constitute inflexible energy sources, which are
difficult to manage within an energy system. In addition, the rapid urbanization and its sideeffects
in the energy sector, further deteriorates the situation. This combination of increasing
energy demand with inflexible ways to produce energy motivates researchers to come up with
innovative and effective solutions in order to deal with such challenging issue. Such solutions
constitute the concept of smart cities.
One way to deal with such mater is to explore possible means of energy storage in smart cities.
Considering that the building sector currently occupies a fundamental role to cities, the
investigation of available capacitances in the existing building stock would be a plausible
target. Moving towards this direction, it is essential to search for applicable technologies that
can create capacitances for energy storage in buildings. Subsequently, a city scale application
of such patterns could contribute more effectively to the mitigation of peak demands. .
The current project deals with the issue of peak load management by utilizing the existing
capacities of a building with respect to its heat demand. Such capacities are “hidden” in
buildings’ passive behaviour, which is directly linked with their construction.
In order to assess buildings thermal behaviour, an existing building case is implemented in a
building simulation tool named IDA ICE. Initially, this building model is validated with the
full-scale measurements conducted.
Based on the validated model, parameter variation with three different scenarios is carried out
in order to evaluate the possibility of short-term energy storage, which indicates the flexibility
potential of the examined building model. The first scenario is a proof of concept which
examines the effectiveness of the material used as thermal mass by comparing a heavy and a
light weight construction. The second scenario investigates how accurately the simulation of
building’s thermal behaviour is. Finally, the third scenario uses a preheating pattern in order to
quantify the time interval of the evaluated flexibility potential. Based on the outcome of the
project, it could be highlighted that heavy weight construction is proved as more effective for
storing amounts of heat within its thermal mass. Additionally, a heavily constructed building
combined with a preheating pattern could lead to significant a heat storage, which could
accomplish a significant peak load shifting.MSc Thesis Emmanouil Katsigiannis s121405 (final submitted)

Proposal: Lyngby Smart City Data Portal (Project framework)

Under “Vidensbyen” partners for the Lyngby Smart Cities activities have agreed on a cooperation that opens for many possible projects for students in the area of smart cities, big data, GIS, BIM, renovation projects, city planing and much more.

The project will be very dynamic. Hence you ought to ask for current activities to join. The projects will involve partners from industries, from the municiplaity and other partners. (see patner list on the home page of Vidensbyen)—Smart-Data-Portal.aspx

PS: Newest building energy mark report for DK: