Proposal: Knitting all together – BIM with GIS, Smart Cities (CIM), Big Data, Sensors (IoT) …

With step-up in the Building Smart, we could work on, how the many data from BIM can be put into relation to other data in GIS systems, City Information Systems (CIM), from Big Data pools and much more. This vision is defined at the Building Smart web site:

Take a look and work with us, evt. in the Vidensby project on Lyngby Smart Cities – data platform.

Please contact me.


Development of Aggregation Models for Building Energy Demands applied to Smart Cities

Master thesis by Panagiota Gianniou, August 2014

Abstract – The mitigation of climate change has been a priority to most countries’ agendas
nowadays. Energy and environmental policies have been introduced to facilitate the
achievement of national targets. At the same time, rapid urbanization has resulted in
converting cities into the main energy consumers and generators of GHG emissions.
Thus, they are an ideal platform where sustainable solutions can be applied which will
improve their durability and functionality. The concept of Smart Cities has the
potential to integrate sustainable technologies and innovative systems into urban
areas. At the same time, the building sector occupies a key place in the development
of Smart Cities. Energy demand of the building sector affects significantly national
energy balances. Furthermore, estimating energy demand of a cluster of buildings, a
district or city requires the aggregation of them. When handling aggregated energy
demand data, future energy predictions and the creation of what-if scenarios for
demand-side energy management are enabled. It also facilitates urban planning, as
well as the development of energy hubs into urban areas.
In the current Thesis, the theoretical background needed to study aggregation of
building energy demands is presented and analyzed. Two methods of aggregating
energy demands of buildings are identified and implemented on a real case-study,
being located in Sønderborg, Denmark. This consists of 16 single-family houses all
connected to the regional district heating system. These were modelled by Termite, a
newly-developed parametric tool, which uses Danish Be10 for energy simulating.
According to the first aggregation way, individual buildings’ energy simulations are
carried out. This method necessitates extensive data availability. Six different
information levels are investigated, concluding that apart from general data about
building’s functionality, floor area and age of construction, also information about the
most recent energy refurbishment state of the building is crucial for achieving high
accuracy in energy demand estimations. According to the second aggregation way,
building typologies are used, where five example buildings representing each type are
simulated. The results highlight that the specific example buildings represent quite
well the respective buildings, but present a deviation from the measured energy
demands. However, the annual aggregate heat demand of this method is found to be
very close to the measured one. Extensive discussion on the challenges and
uncertainties of the present city energy model is also presented.

MSc Thesis_Panagiota Gianniou_s121414.

Panagiote Gianniou is today a PhD at DTU Byg. You find her work at

Modellering af den termiske masse i bygninger med det formål at bestemme bygningers evne til at flytte energiforbruget i tiden

Bachelor thesis by Frederik Lynge Holvorsen, June 2015 (Danish)

(English: Modelling of thermal mass of buildings, aiming at flexibility, demand shifting of energy demand for heating and cooling.)

Introduktion (Danish): Den øgede anvendelse af vedvarende energi medfører store udfordringer med at holde
energisystemerne stabile. Da det før kun var forbrugssiden, der svingede, er det med vedvarende
energikilder, også produktionssiden der viser udsving. Dette kan medføre uhensigtsmæssige
ekstremsituationer, som kan være ”spidser” (peaks) eller ”huller”. Derfor
arbejdes der på teknologier, der er i stand til at flytte energiforbrug i tiden, for eksempel
ved at lagre energi. I bygninger er det oplagt at udnytte bygningens masse hertil. Der er
dog ret stor usikkerhed omkring den mængde energi, der kan lagres, når for eksempel
overskydende elektricitet fra vindmøller kun er til rådighed i korte perioder. Nærværende
projekt vil, gennem modellering undersøge, hvordan varmetransporten og varmelagring
foregår i typiske konstruktioner og materialer. Dermed er der mulighed for at estimere potentialet
for fleksibilitet som bygninger kan tilbyde det omgivende energisystem.

Produktionen af bæredygtig energi og energibehov er ikke nødvendigvis sammenfaldende
rent tidsmæssigt. Dette gør sig gældende med hensyn til udnyttelse af vindenergi, som bidrager
til en større og større del af Danmarks energiproduktion. Vindmøller kan f.eks. producerer
strøm om natten hvor behovet for energi i boliger og kontorer er lavt.
Det er derfor relevant at afdække mulighederne for at kunne lagre overskydende energi til
senere brug.

1.2 Formål
Formålet med dette bachelorprojekt er at undersøge bygningers evne til at flytte varmeforbruget
i tiden gennem termisk lagring i bygningsmassen. Denne undersøgelse sker ved
hjælp af matematisk modellering af den termiske masse.

1.3 Fremgangsmåde
Projektforløbet blev delt op i tre faser. I den første fase opstilles og analyseres de nødvendige
teorier, som danner grundlag for at undersøge muligheden for at forskyde energiforbruget
i bygninger.

Abstract (English):

Background: Huge challenges occur with an increasing use of sustainable energy. Some
of these challenges are associated with securing the stability of the energy systems and to
continuously meet consumer energy demand.

Objective: The objective of this project is to provide knowledge regarding the ability to
store thermal energy in buildings and increase the load shift potential, by implementing
mathematical models to support analytics and decision-making. This project will examine
how heat transfer and heat storage is done in typical structures and materials to help estimate
the potential for flexibility which buildings can offer the surrounding energy systems.

Method: This paper is based on a combination of a recognised theoretical foundation,
which forms the basis for exploring the possibility of shifting energy consumption in buildings.
The theory is used to prepare two models in Ida Ice and Comsol in order to verify the
accuracy of Ida Ice. The theoretical foundation and the setup of the models are revisited
and adjusted in an iterative process, in order to obtain the same performance in Ida Ice as
in Comsol and verify the use of Ida Ice.

A range of experiments have been designed in order to simulate different thermal situations
in order to demonstrate the flexibility potential of buildings.

Results: The verification of the building simulation program Ida Ice shows a discrepancy
when comparing to the theoretical foundation and formulas implemented in Comsol. It will
require further investigations to identify the underlying reason of these observations.

The results of the experiments show that it is possible to store energy in order to make use
of this at a later time. However this requires a longer preheating period and the time period
where the energy demand can be shifted is limited.

Bachelorprojekt, Frederik Halvorsen s123095 (final).

Proposal: EnergyLab Nordhavn – Huge opportunity for Tech Nerds

The EnergyLab Nordhavn is is investing min. 150 mill. DDK into a living lab of tech solutions that aim at solving the sustainable future city challenge. There are project opportunities en mass – If you are looking for a tech project, here you have the opportunity to make a difference. The investments into hardware, internet communication, data storage, buildings, components are made – you can concentrate on doing the tech development, research, innovation.

There are projects for sustainability, energy, building automation, software development, modelling and simulation, planing, monitoring en hardware, data management, data science and much, much more … What would you like the future city to give you – here we may have the opportunity to test it.

For non-tech nerds – there are opportunities for user-related research, economical studies, anthropological studies, you may even make some architectural-cultural studies … – We work together with the relevant research institution to make this realistic.

The project can be found online at:

Contact (Al)Fred Heller.

Evaluation of buildings’ flexibility potential with respect to their embedded thermal mass

Master Thesis by Emmanouil Katsigiannis, March 2015

Abstract – Towards the mitigation of climate chance and the reduction of green-house-gas emissions,
cities, nowadays, persistently tend to increase the power generated from renewable energy
resources. The penetration of renewables, however, implies several side-effects. Renewable
energy sources such as wind and solar energy constitute inflexible energy sources, which are
difficult to manage within an energy system. In addition, the rapid urbanization and its sideeffects
in the energy sector, further deteriorates the situation. This combination of increasing
energy demand with inflexible ways to produce energy motivates researchers to come up with
innovative and effective solutions in order to deal with such challenging issue. Such solutions
constitute the concept of smart cities.
One way to deal with such mater is to explore possible means of energy storage in smart cities.
Considering that the building sector currently occupies a fundamental role to cities, the
investigation of available capacitances in the existing building stock would be a plausible
target. Moving towards this direction, it is essential to search for applicable technologies that
can create capacitances for energy storage in buildings. Subsequently, a city scale application
of such patterns could contribute more effectively to the mitigation of peak demands. .
The current project deals with the issue of peak load management by utilizing the existing
capacities of a building with respect to its heat demand. Such capacities are “hidden” in
buildings’ passive behaviour, which is directly linked with their construction.
In order to assess buildings thermal behaviour, an existing building case is implemented in a
building simulation tool named IDA ICE. Initially, this building model is validated with the
full-scale measurements conducted.
Based on the validated model, parameter variation with three different scenarios is carried out
in order to evaluate the possibility of short-term energy storage, which indicates the flexibility
potential of the examined building model. The first scenario is a proof of concept which
examines the effectiveness of the material used as thermal mass by comparing a heavy and a
light weight construction. The second scenario investigates how accurately the simulation of
building’s thermal behaviour is. Finally, the third scenario uses a preheating pattern in order to
quantify the time interval of the evaluated flexibility potential. Based on the outcome of the
project, it could be highlighted that heavy weight construction is proved as more effective for
storing amounts of heat within its thermal mass. Additionally, a heavily constructed building
combined with a preheating pattern could lead to significant a heat storage, which could
accomplish a significant peak load shifting.MSc Thesis Emmanouil Katsigiannis s121405 (final submitted)

Proposal: Lyngby Smart City Data Portal (Project framework)

Under “Vidensbyen” partners for the Lyngby Smart Cities activities have agreed on a cooperation that opens for many possible projects for students in the area of smart cities, big data, GIS, BIM, renovation projects, city planing and much more.

The project will be very dynamic. Hence you ought to ask for current activities to join. The projects will involve partners from industries, from the municiplaity and other partners. (see patner list on the home page of Vidensbyen)—Smart-Data-Portal.aspx

PS: Newest building energy mark report for DK:

Proposal: Infrared cameras for occupancy detection

Using cameras in public places does lead to conflicts with privacy. This may not be the case using infrared cameras. We have installed such a camera at DTU campus and we would like to work with the data from the camera to count people in a building, how people move around and such like.

One source for infra-red camera could come from the control system at the library section of DTU. Here we have an alternative counter system that could be used for comparison and validation.

Are you programmer, or software developer, or you are able to do picture analysis, then this project would be relevant for you. Please contact me.

Proposal: Sensorer og RFID kombineres med BIM

I samarbejde med MT Højgaard forsøger vi at udvikle vores tanker omkring smarte sensorer og RFID i kombination med BIM. Er det muligt at placere sensorer i BIM, at få deres data overført ind i BIM? Kan vi udnytte BIM til at etablere et smart brugergrænseflade for driftsansvarlige?

Der er mange sprøgsmål: I dette projekt tager vi de første skridt i denne retning og forsøger at koble sensorer og RFID som er placeret i bygninger til deres rigtige sted i BIM. Vil du være den der flytter denne udvikling, så kontakt os.

Bemærk at Bjarne Saxhof Fond har støttet de aktiviteter der har ført til nuværend vidensniveau på området.

Proposal: Building as a Service (BaaS)

With respect to make the next generation intelligent building automation, Germany is proposing the following software infrastructure project – Building as a Service (BaaS) – We are looking for software geeks that can help us with analyzing and implementing what is possible.

The BaaS system aims to optimize energy performance in the application domain of “non-residential buildings, in operational stage. In the building operational life-cycle three significant tasks have to be continuously performed:

  • collect information and assess the buildings current state
  • predict the effect that various decisions will have to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • optimize performance.

A generic ICT-enabled system will be developed to provide integrated assess, predict, optimize (APO) services that guarantee harmonious and parsimonious use of available resources.

You find the project at and the software part at

Please contact me.

Proposal: City and Buildings Renewable Energy Potentials

You work with 3D on a city level that has developed a lot during the last years. A first project was sketched by by Lærke and Mads in 2012. The city of Copenhagen has implemented it in a real data platform, amongst showing the solar potential for the buildings in Copenhagen and a open data service at

If you go further and enter the buildings, Google did a good job – See the Google Indoor “Maps” solution that has different names “Plan” “Indoor maps” …

The interest for further implementations of the ideas is broad. We are looking for students to follow up including BIM, GIS and other technologies, visualizations and app implementations.

You can also get inspiration from the solarvision project (Visualisation from this site).

Interested? Contact me – (Al)Fred Heller, DTU.